Learning How to Paint in Oils by Elaine Ostroot

Posts tagged ‘painting lessons’

using photographs – part one


Photos are wonderful!  I do not know any other thing that has been as helpful.  I could not go to Kenya, but I had friends and students that did.  Another pair of good friends traveled a lot and I was the recipient of many of their photos from Mexico and Central America.

There are a few problems we must keep in mind.  The camera “sees” differently.  It flattens objects.  It distorts.  The shadows are usually too dark and it records EVERYTHING.  An artist friend said that the only problem he had with photos is learning what to leave out.  If it doesn’t contribute to the painting or what you are trying to say in the painting, leave it out.

  So in my new series of paintings about Native Americans, I will use Edward Curtis’s photos as I would a photo I took myself – selectively.  I will begin by showing you the photo I am using and detail how I plan to use it.   I will lighten the shadows on our chief’s face and open his eyes a little more.  I will put an evening sunset behind him; the lightest yellows low, gradually deepening to orange and rose colors ending with the darkest around his ceremonial bonnet.  I will change the stick with the scalps – I will make it a Calumet (a “peace”  pipe).   I will also remove the shadow on his hand.  I will also edit out the curve of the cape below his bonnet as well as the metal buckle on the saddle blanket. 

Curtis “staged” a good many of his photos.  He acquired a sizable wardrobe of clothing, bonnets and other artifacts to assist him.  The man was an artist – I have no objection to his methods, but I don’t have to use all of his details in my work.  If you copy a photo exactly – what are you saying?  You are “saying” what the photographer said.   Where is your input?  I want to “say” something different.  I want you to look at that wonderful face.  I want you to see the nobility of a God created creature, created in His image.  I do not want you distracted by a bunch of “details” that do not contribute to that goal.  Curtis had a different goal – so do we all.  Choose your goal for your painting and stick with it.  Don’t let someone else’s idea change your plan.

 We begin as I always do by selecting the size of the canvas.  I think a 24 x 30 will do nicely.  I want this painting to be the centerpiece of the series.  This size is large and it will command attention.  Now I will take a smaller photo and place my grid on it and the canvas and do the drawing (just as we did in “Portraiture One” post back in October).  I will not use a toned canvas for this, as I want the white of the canvas to help illuminate the  colors.  I will start with the sunset, my pallet will consist of white, lemon and cad yellow, cad and permanent red and maybe some quinacridone rose (quinacridone colors are relatively new and worth trying out – so far I like them and this particular rose is beautiful).

I plan to show you a different method from the one in “Portraiture One, Two and Three”.  In those posts I did a value study.  In this painting I will paint the face and figure directly.  I will paint the entire painting with an underpainting.  I will start with a “local” color.  To get this color, I usually squint my eyes to obscure the details of light and shadow.  What’s left is the basic color of the object.  Since we have no color in this photo I will simply use what I think the local color would be and paint that in.  It will look like a poster with a  little shading, but hang in there we will model all these objects with light and shadow.  This is simply another way of organizing a painting.  I will get the sky and some of the local colors and take photos as I go so that you can see the steps.

  I will add more shadow and this will shape the body under the buckskin.  I will add the pipe and it’s decorations.  I will also shade and model the feathers and our chief’s face.  I will do this with opaque color and with glazes.  A glaze is a color thinned with Liquin.  Take a small amount of color with your knife and place it on your glass pallet.  Now add a small puddle of Liquin next to it.  With your brush in hand, add the Liquin to your color – a little at a time – until your color is almost transparent.  This is a glaze.  For the face I will shadow it with raw sienna and burnt umber mixtures.  For the feathers, I will use burnt umber and ultra blue mixtures.  For the buckskin, I will use raw sienna, white and burnt umber with a little cerulean blue added in to gray the mixtures.  I will further model all these objects with lighter mixtures of the local color to shape them and to add interest.  My last step will be to add the lights and highlights.  This is my plan.  We will see how it all works out.

First, the basic block in – the sky and the local color of the chief and the objects around him.  

 OK,  now the real work begins.  Modeling the face – get rid of those dark shadows.  I want a clearly defined face.  Those dark shadows on our chief’s face make for a good photo – but I want to focus on the person, so we will use much lighter shadow colors.  As we’ve done before, start with three mixtures, using raw sienna, burnt sienna  and burnt umber.

I will step down the values, using white, just as we have done before, untill I have at least three distinct values.  I will work with these, mixing them as I go to paint our chief’s face.   I will also add a little permanent red to some of the mixtures to bring a little color to our chief’s face.

I have found that using raw sienna instead of yellow ocher to skintone mixtures adds a little grayer tone to hispanic and indian peoples.

I will now start to model the figure’s bonnet and buckskin clothing and start the process of finish work.  This is going to take some time.  So I will show you the painting as it is now. 

There’s much more work to be done.  I will continue and post as I go.  Next time – finish work!

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Light!


What’s so special about north light?  We go on and on about it.  We want windows to face it.  We orient our skylights for it.  Well – it’s steady – doesn’t change much throughout the day – neutral, neither warm nor cool – just perfect for painting.  My studio skylight doesn’t face true north.  It’s a little skewed to the east so in August I have some sun in the late morning.  I have a shade that allows light, but not sun in that solves that problem. 

There is lighting galore for sale almost everywhere.  My studio lighting is florescent fixtures, placed on either side of my skylight.  So on cloudy days I can still paint. There’s much more available.  Check out catalogs or online for all the options.  You will need to know temperature numbers before you buy.  The best light for painting is 5000 degrees  (and up) Kelvin, which equals daylight (as seen from the sky facing north.).

 I know you have seen this written in many books, we, as artists paint the effects of light.  Here are some examples.  These photos were all taken at different times from my dinning room window.  The first photo – early morning sun.  The second – later in the day.  The third – overcast day.  The effects of light are clearly demonstrated. 

When you light a subject in your studio, you will want a source of light that you can clearly see.   In my studio my easel is oriented so that the strong light from the window on my left lights the still life or the person I am painting.  My easel is also oriented so that the light from the sky is over my left shoulder.  We do not want the shadow from the brush in my hand to shade the canvas.  So, light is really important.  Not only light on your subject, but the light you paint by.

 Light creates shadows.  Put an apple on a stand near your easel.  If you are sitting with light from a window with sky exposure, the strong light at the left of the apple will light the top and the left side.  Now look at the right side.  Note the shadow side.  As the light gets further away the color deepens and the chroma isn’t as intense.  Note where the apple meets the right side of the table.  There’s your darkest shadow with the hardest line.  The shadow is called “cast shadow” and it’s always the darkest shadow you will see.  Note how the shadow gets lighter and the edge gets softer as your eye moves away toward the right.  We’re getting a little previous with this, but while we’re at it, please note how the edge of the apple softens as it turns away from you.  What were trying to do here is to learn how to “see”.  Artists have to observe closely.  Your eye must learn how to stay with something you’re trying to observe to catch all the nuances.  After a while, you will get so used to it you’ll be amazed at your change of focus.  You really will be able to focus all your attention. On what you are looking at

 Color is light and light is color.  What you are painting is a record of the patterns and variations of light.  .

Chroma


Chroma is simply another word for intensity and dullness.  To make a color more intense we will add another color to it.  To dull it we will add another color.  So – set out your palette. We will start with yellow.  Make two piles of lemon yellow (about the size of a penny). Mix up a small amount of purple (red and blue).  It does matter which blue and which red.  Try mixing up different colors of red and blue and note the differences in each.   If you mix all the possible combinations you should have an array of beautiful purples on your palette. Now add a pinhead of one of those purples to one of your piles of yellow.  Note the change.  It is now less intense, but the value shouldn’t have changed unless you have added too much.  Now add a small amount of white to your second pile of yellow.  Note how much brighter the color is.  Observe your piles of yellow.  The original pile  is the tube color; one is a less intense, but the same value as your tube color.  The third is brighter.  Now let’s do the same to your warmer yellow (cad yellow).  Same two piles same size.  Same pinhead of purple,  Note how different these colors are.

 You could do this exercise all day using all the different purples – if you used a cool blue and a cool red; you will get a cool purple.  The same will occur if you choose the warm versions.  You will get different colors of purple if you choose a warm blue and a cool red – a cool blue and a warm red.  These are all beautiful colors and can change the color of your yellow dramatically.

Now, let’s try it with your reds.  Two penny sized piles   The opposite of red (look at your color wheel) is green.  Again, it matters which red and which green.  Warm or cool.  Don’t let all this discourage you.  I realize I’m throwing a lot at you at once.  Just take it in, do the exercises and you will absorb it.  I will start with cad red – then do the same with permanent red.  We will take each color – warm and cool – and do the same exercise. When we’re finished your pallet should look something like this photo. 

Back to the red.  We’ll start with cad red.  I’ve mixed a little sap green into the first pile.  (I did not want to change the temperature.)  The color I mixed is close enough to the original – larger pile of tube color to see the change.  To brighten the second pile I’ve added cad yellow (adding white would have made that red chalky).  Now the Permanent red.  I’ve added thalo green to it (small amount – this green will take over the world!)  Again, these reds are close enough to the tube color array to see the changes.   To brighten permanent red I’ve added cad red to it.  Ultramarine blue; I’ve mixed an orange (opposite of blue) and added it to the first pile – to see the color change I added a little white to one end of the pile.  To the second pile I added a small amount of white.  Not too much, we don’t want to change the value.  Cerulean blue;  a small amount of orange (I’ve spotted a small amount of tube color for you to see the changes) and to the second pile a small amount of white.

Finally, our greens.  To sap green – cad red, I’ve added a small amount of cad yellow so you can see the change .    I placed a small dot of tube color for comparison.  Add a small amount of cad yellow to your second pile to brighten it.  On to thalo green;  I’ve placed a smaller pile of thalo green with a little of lemon yellow at the bottom to show you the tube color for comparison.  To the next pile I’ve added permanent red and a small amount of lemon yellow, note the difference in chroma between these two examples.  Now add a small amount of lemon yellow to the last pile to brighten.  You will note that I seldom use white to lighten and brighten a color.  Most times white will make your colors chalky.   a similar lighter version will do the job.

To demonstrate why being able to change the chroma of a color  is important, please note this painting that I’m doing for my son.  There is so much green in this painting it could overwhelm this  “wedding cake” of a castle.  So I have varied the greens (cool and warm) to alleviate that possibility.

Color knowledge is probable the most extensive of all the things we must learn to paint in oils.  I say “we”, I include myself in this.  I am still learning.  I think that’s one of the things I love about painting in oil; you can never learn it all – there’s always something new to learn – always something new and challenging to excite the mind – always another thing to add to our knowledge.  Most important, love what you do and allow yourself to enjoy the process. 

Next time:  LIGHT!

Loose Threads


Before we go on to Chroma –

I became aware that I have left out some tips that might help.  Brush washing for instance.  My brush washer is a coffee can with a ¼’ hardware cloth, cut into a square, (corners cut out so that it forms a five sided box open on the end) and inserted into the can.  Put a small hole in the lid or your lid will crack..  When you finish your painting session, wash your brushes using the hardware cloth to dislodge the paint out of the brush, gently please, these brushes are not free!  Wipe them with a paper towel and take them to your sink.  Put a little dishwashing liquid in the palm of your hand and swirl the brush, back and forth and around, working the soap into the brush all the way to the ferrule. Do this at least three times, rinsing the brush in between washings. After rinsing thoroughly, squeeze the brush dry with a paper towel.  Now is your opportunity to shape your brush.  Draw the brush between your fingers to shape it back to its original form. It’s fairly dry, so you can set it upright in a vase or brush holder to dry completely.

What do we do with all that left over paint?  We do not throw it away.  Find a piece of card board, wrap it with Gladwrap, put your leftover paint on it, then put another sheet of the wrap on top sealing it with your thumb and popping it in the freezer.  This will not work forever.  Paint dries, partially, when the oils evaporate.  It’s a chemical thing.  What you have done is to slow things down a bit.  I paint almost every day so this works for me.  If you keep it in the freezer for more that a few days you will find it fairly dry.  It can still be used to help you mix up another batch of color.

I thought you might like to see my studio.  I didn’t always have this large and spacious space. (When I started I had a small space in my bedroom.  The light was awful, but it was my space and I loved it.)  Please note the table beside the easel.  Gerry made this for me.  He made a simple bookcase with a drawer for paint, open on both sides and on casters so I could move it.  The easel He also made out of materials you can buy at any home improvement store.  If you are able to handle wood working tools (or have a handy partner), and would like to make this easel, e-mail me and maybe we can help you construct your own.  The top bar of the easel has a series of nails with double heads.  My mahlstick has a ½’ screw eye in the top end.  That allows it to hang where I can reach it and use it for detail work.

I ordered paint from aswexpress.com yesterday, and found they had color wheels and value charts.  This is all I can think of at the moment.  Please feel free to e-mail me if you have any questions.  I will try to answer them.

value and color


Value and Color

I can remember my difficulty with both of these concepts.  The books I read are the same ones you’re reading.  A lot of words I didn’t understand and ideas I didn’t know how to implement.  So, let’s demystify these terms.  VALUE:  think of nine boxes.  Label them 1 to 9.  Put white at one end and black at the other end.  Now add all the shades of gray leading from black to white in the appropriate boxes. Value is the relative lightness or darkness of a color.  HUE is simply another word for a color family name, for example BLUE.  CHROMA; is the relative brightness or intensity of color. I suggest that you go to your art supply store and purchase a value index card (if you order paint from Daniel Smith ask them to send you one.  It’s free and it is 4” X 6”, small enough to carry around) and a color wheel.  

I’m gong to tell you what I did to implement these concepts.  Go into your closet.  Take out a shirt, pants any clothing item (not black or white).  Take the item to the nearest window with light from the sky (no overhanging green branches or patio covers to change the quality of the light).  Now really look at your item.  My pick is a green shirt.  Ask; what color is it? – Green, what value is it? – Middle, like 5 or 6, how intense is the color? – Very bright green, what temperature? – Toward the blue (cool).  Put your shirt back in the closet.  Go to your easel and mix up that color.  Now, go back and get that shirt and take to your easel and compare your mixture to the shirt.  Now mix up the color till you get it right. If it’s too yellow add blue, (add these modifying colors a little at a time – sneak up on it) too blue add yellow.  If the color is too intense add it’s opposite.  In this case, the opposite of green is red.  If you will do this every day for at least five days a week, by months end you will be very good at it and you will understand color.  You will also learn how to mix color, what works and what doesn’t.

 Now let’s take each color on your palette, learn how to mix it with all the other colors and what the results might be.  I say, “might” because you are going to have to do the mixing.  My little camera just doesn’t have the capacity to show you all the possibilities.

Besides, you would not learn a thing if I did all the mixing. 

We will start with yellow.  Take a half-dollar sized pile of lemon yellow.  With your palette knife, separate that pile into 17 smaller piles.  Now take ultramarine blue and permanent red (a small amount of each, say, a pea sized amount) and mix them together.  Do the same with cerulean blue and permanent red.  Notice the difference?  Do the same with ultra blue and cad red, then with cerulean blue and cad red. To see the difference more clearly, add a little white in the corner of each pile of purples.  What’s this? You ask, I thought we were going to play with yellow.  We are.  Purple is the opposite of yellow and we need these colors to modify yellow.  So – you should have a group of small piles of yellow spread out on your glass palette and 4 smaller piles of various colors of purple.

We begin.  With your first pile of yellow add a small amount (pea size) of cad yellow.  Notice how much warmer that cool lemon has become.  Now add a small amount of cad red to the second pile of yellow.  We now have a cool orange.  Add a small amount of permanent red to the third pile of yellow.  We now have a totally different orange.  Continue down the colors, mixing a small amount of each of your palette of colors into your piles of yellow (one color to each pile of yellow).  We will end with lemon yellow by adding white to one pile of yellow and black to the last two piles of yellow.  (We do not include black in this palette because it’s just too easy to make.  The same is true of browns; I include the browns for convenience.  When we get into portraiture you will understand why.)  To make black (again black comes in cool and warm) take a pea size each of ultra blue and burnt sienna and mix them.  Your black should be warm.  Do the same with ultra blue and burnt umber.  This should be much cooler.   Now add a small amount of each of the black colors to the last two piles of yellow.   What you should have are two very interesting colors of spring green.  (I view black as a “blue” for this reason.)  Look at the array of beautiful colors you have created!  Compare all these beautiful colors to your value card, especially your two oranges.  Note the difference in value   You’re on your way to becoming a “colorist”.

 Do this same exercise with all of your palette colors.  You will learn a great deal about your paints.  When I buy a new color or buy paint from a manufacturer that I haven’t used before, you can bet I will do this exercise with all my other colors before I use it.  The time spent doing this will save much time and tears, believe me.

 You are probably thinking – what good is the value card?  Take your value card in hand and match the living room rug, your daughter’s dress, your son’s hair, the coffee pot, the tree outside your window, and the orange lily in your garden.  Do this exercise often, at least once a day, until you can match the object with a patch on the card effortlessly.  Look outside – you will find a lot of different values in the scene you are observing.  Light against dark, dark against light, contrast, warm against cool.  These are concepts you will be implementing in your paintings.  You need to see these concepts before you can implement them.  I keep my value card underneath the glass on top of the table beside my easel.  I refer to it often to get my values right.

 One more thing before we close this post.  Most of my beginning students put out tiny dabs of color when they are laying out their paints.  They are so aware that their new paints cost money.  Then,  half way through their painting, they run out of paint and it’s almost impossible to mix up the exact matching color.  So, you wind up repainting a good bit of what you’ve already painted so it will match.  No cost saving there.  So, set out at least a nickel sized amount. 

 Next time we will talk about chroma.

A Little Philosophy


Some Philosophy

 There are a lot of ugly paintings out there.  Since I’m not a reporter, I don’t have to paint the ugly, hurtful and sad views of this world.  I can choose to reveal my vision of this beautiful world God has given us to live in.  I realize that I’m most fortunate to be able to live in the gorgeous Ozark hills.  My home is halfway up a mountain with a beautiful view.  We have very little crime here in comparison with a big city.  I do most of my “shopping” on the internet (thank heaven for amazon.com).  I have a wonderful husband who supports my efforts (whatever they might be), frames my work and does innumerable things to make my life easy and very enjoyable (he makes me laugh a lot).  So, I am sheltered and blessed.  Nonetheless, I still do not believe that I am here to paint the uglys of this world.  So I don’t. 

 People seem to be the subjects of most of my paintings.  I started out as a portrait painter.  Now my concentration seems to be more tuned to people as paintings.  There is a difference.  As a portrait painter, my focus was to please the client.  Now I please myself.

It’s much more fun and freeing.  When I do paint a portrait it seems to have more of the qualities of a “painting” rather than a portrait.  Maybe I’m splitting hairs, but that’s the feeling I’m after.

 I am not formally trained.  I started painting in my forties (kids grown, mostly).  I painted a lot.  My art library had over 100 books, these were my teachers.  The little child seen in my first blog is my tribute to Harley Brown.  You will see my husband, Gerry, in this blog as my “John Howard Sanden”.  So, I studied with some really good artists.  I hope I’ve done them justice.  My only claim to teach is the fact that I have been painting now for almost 40 years. I do have some experience.

There is a lot of controversy as to what constitutes “art”.  Harley Brown has some tart words to say in his latest book “Harley Brown’s eternal truths for every artist” (I highly recommend this book).  Robert Vickrey wrote a quest editorial column in The Artist’s Magazine some years ago (November 1987) in which he cries “whatever happened to “Is it any good?” Why has that been replaced with “Is it new?” and “Does it influence other people?

He quotes John Canaday, a critic for the New York Times, says the cult of the new has replaced the worthy. Vickrey calls most of the art he sees as TV dinner art: frozen, emotionless, flavorless.  I admit, a lot has changed since then, but I still see Urine filled glasses with crucifixes in them, urinals hanging in museums and huge tracts of land decorated with “whatever” and calling it “installations”.  I am a committed follower of Jesus of Nazareth and as such, most of this stuff annoys me a lot.  I write this blog to honor Him as well as to pass on the hard won truths I have learned to the next generation of artists that share my delight in our world and want to represent all that beauty realistically. 

 I confess I love realism in art. Not necessarily photo realism.  I love seeing a soft painterly style.  There is a place in “realism” for imagination and vision.  There is enough space in realism for all of us, no matter how we paint, even those of us that use a little abstraction in our work.  Abstract, after all, in most cases is really nothing more that squinting your eyes to fuzz out the details.  I am not against abstract art, I’ve been known to do a few of them myself.  Having said that, I do consider them “decorative ” fun and colorful, but not art.  This is my opinion, there are many artists that would disagree, but they aren’t writing this. 

 So – there you have it – the world according to Elaine.  Next time we will look at Value and Color.   

 

   

 

       

 

 

 

 

Let’s Paint A Picture


Choose a small primed panel (canvas) – say an 8 x 10.  With a pencil,( a plain yellow #2) will do, find the center and draw a line (lightly) horizontally.  Make another line in the same way vertically. 

There are many ways to divide your panel but for now we will stick to simple.  Choose three” something’s”. Apples, onions, pears, peppers or  similar fruits or vegetables will do nicely.  Find a cloth napkin, a piece of cloth you like or even a scarf.  Arrange your still life on a table with your fabric under it. Position your table with your still life arrangement close to your easel.   Step back and tweak the arrangement until you are satisfied.  Those lines going through horizontally and vertically are there to help you in the placement of your objects.  You do not want a horizon (or a table) or a strong vertical line on these lines. 

With that same #2 pencil draw your still life on the panel.  A tip on arranging your still life might help here.  If you overlap some objects it adds depth to your painting.  Place your table (horizon) either above your horizontal line or below it.  Draw your objects, do not hesitate to erase and redraw!  Keep looking at your drawing and evaluating it compared to the still life,  changing it until you are happy with it.  A little more time in this step will be rewarding.  When you finish you will need to spray your drawing with a fixative in order to keep the lead in the pencil from changing your color mixtures.  (Krylon crystal clear matte or satin will work very well).

Now we are ready to paint.  Lay out your paints on a smooth surface.  I use a piece of glass (with the edges taped). A white sheet of paper under your glass will allow you to accurately judge your color mixtures.  Glass is easy to clean.  After scraping most of the paint off,  I clean my glass with a little denatured alcohol – works great.  Lay out at least a nickel sized amount of paint.  Start with white, then each color in its turn.  Note the example picture – I have left a couple of empty spaces.  It will help you to learn to place your colors in the same place.  You will become so used to reaching that particular place for a color it will become automatic.  So – I will not need these colors for my still life so I will leave those spots empty.  It does not matter in what order you arrange your colors.  This is the way I arrange mine.   Some artists arrange all their warm colors together and their cool ones in the same manner.  It only matters that you arrange them in the same way each time.

After publishing this blog, I  realized that the paint names on the illistration picture cannot be seen, so to avoid confusion, starting with WHITE, the colors are:  LEMON YELLOW, CAD YELLOW, CAD RED, PERMANENT RED, ULTRA BLUE, CERULEAN BLUE  SAP GREEN (left empty), THALO GREEN, YELLOW OCHER, RAW SIENNA (left empty), BURNT SIENNA  and BURNT UMBER.

I have chosen to paint some nectarines.  The beautiful warm reds, oranges and yellows will contrast nicely with the blue napkin under them.  A small note about color (we will go into that subject in detail later – one step at a time).  Blue is opposite of orange.  Remember our list of colors and the temperature headings of warm and cool?  Contrast is one element of a pleasing painting.  Cool (blue napkin) and warm (orange fruit). 

Let’s begin.  For this painting I will mix up a cool bluish grey in varying values (the lightness or darkness of color) for the background.  With your palette knife mix a small amount of yellow ocher into a somewhat larger amount of cerulean blue.  Work your ocher in in small amounts into your cerulean blue until you have reached your desired color.  Now step down the values with white as shown in the example picture.  Working around my fruit I will vary the values.  Please note where the light is coming from.  In my painting the light is coming from my left.  My shadows will be on the right and the lightest lights will be on the left.  Also note that the darkest shadow is the “cast” shadow from the fruit.  That shadow will be darkest and sharpest closest to the fruit.  That shadow softens out the further it is from the fruit.  Now let’s paint the fruit.  Take each color you see in the fruit and mix it in a pile separate from each other.  Mix a little Yellow into your warm red to achieve a nice orange. My little trick is to imagine each shade of color as a small “tile”.  Paint the “tile” in, one “tile” on top and overlapping the other.  Then smooth the colors together with a separate brush.  (Some artists like the look of the separate colors and do not do the smoothing bit.)  Hold your brush closer to the top end – the closer you clutch up to the ferrule the less control you will have.  Paint your fruit as you observe them.  Looking closely will help you find the nuances of color that will make that fruit look like you can pick it up and eat it! Now the napkin.  Same idea.  Mix up all the shades you see and paint them in.  I used the background color adding a little ultramarine blue and a touch of permanent red.  Notice I have used a little more white in my lightest” napkin” color to accent the lightest lights.  If your table shows,  we will do the same thing – mix up the shades, “tile” them in and smooth with your brush.  In most cases you would start painting your darks first and progress to lighter colors ending with your highlights.  In this technique, I find it easier to do the reverse.  For the fruit It makes for less muddy colors and less cleaning of the brush.  You should not have to clean your brush in turp unless you are clearing out warm colors for cool. ones.  When we get to the napkin we will do it the usual way, darks to lights.

 I’ve led you into deep water.  I assure you it was deliberate.  There are many ways to paint a picture.  This style is called “alla prima” which means “all at once” We are going to paint this small painting in one sitting.  We will get to the other ways later.  I wanted you to have the experience of a finished painting in the shortest amount of time.  I won’t desert you, I promise.

I can hear you howl all the way to Arkansas.  “Every time I paint a “tile” I mess up what I painted before!” OK, make sure you have a paper towel in your left hand.  Wipe your brush often – almost after every stroke. It will help if you start with your lightest color first, then on to the lightest orange and so on to the darks… The stippled look is achieved by loading the very end of your brush with small amounts of color and lightly tapping the color on.  Then smooth with a clean brush.  I find it useful to keep my “fruit” colors on one brush and the” background and napkin” colors on another.

Continue on until the entire canvas is covered. You have just painted your first painting!

Now, stand back, admire your painting, and then sign it proudly! (Usually somewhere at the bottom, either left or right, wherever it looks best to you.)

One final word on this subject.  What pleases you and makes your painting work for you is the important thing.  This is your work, your expression.  It’s fine to copy some famous artist’s style to learn how to do it.  You will find your own personal style.  You can’t avoid it.  It will show up.  Your very own “look”, unmistakably your style.  Someone someday will show up and say to you “I knew it was your painting the minute I saw it.”

Now on to the next exciting step!